PREVALENCE OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS AMONG ADULTS IN SANA’A CITY-YEMEN

  • Ameera Saleh Abu-Hurub Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University.
  • Amin Abdulkarem Okbah
  • Hassan Mohammed Ali Al-Dweelah Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University
  • Khaled Abdulkareem Al-Moyed Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University.
  • Abdulwahab Ismail Mohamed Al-Kholani Department of conservative dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen.
  • Mohammed Mohammed Ali Al-Najhi Department of conservative dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Genius University for Sciences & Technology, Dhamar city, Yemen.
  • Hassan Abdulwahab Al-Shamahy Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University. Medical Microbiology department, Faculty of Medicine, Genius University for Sciences & Technology, Dhamar city, Republic of Yemen.

Abstract

Background and Aims: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic and human disease caused by species of Leishmania. Parasites are transmitted to the vertebrate host by the bite of a sand fly female (Phlebotomus longipalpis), where the infected promastigotes transform into amastigotes; and this is deadly if left untreated. The purposes of the current research were to reveal the prevalence and potential risk factors for VL in adults in Sana’a city, Yemen.


Subjects and methods: This cross-sectional study was performed during the period from January 2020 to November 2020. Individuals who come for a regular medical examination at Al-Zahrawi Medical Center, Althobhani Specialist Laboratories, Police Hospital, and University of Science and Technology Hospital. A target sample size of 300 was selected, and serum samples were collected from all subjects to determine the prevalence of anti-VL antibodies in human by immune-chromatographic assay using K39 recombinant antigen.


Results: The ages of the participants' ranged from 18-65 years, with a mean of 29.8±8.2 years. The positive rate of antibodies against Leishmania species by immune-chromatographic dipstick strip (rK39) was 6.0%. There was statistically important association linking male gender and contracting VL (8.8%, OR=4.1, CI=1.2-14.4, P=0.01). There was a significant association (<0.001) between the presence of dogs, rats, and goats in or around live houses and positive VL antibodies with an OR equal to 8.8.7.3 and 8.4, respectively. There were significant risk factors for garbage around the living house, there was also a significant association between displacement and the incidence of VL (P<0.001) (OR=8.6, CI=2.8–27.2).


Conclusion: Visceral leishmaniasis was highly prevalent in Sana'a city, and potential risk factors for VL were present with displacement, dogs, rats, goats, garbage, sleeping outside enclosed rooms, and sand flies in living houses. Further studies of human VL need to be conducted to clarify this issue in Yemen, to track and confirm potential reservoirs among canines and other animals, as well as to study vectors.


Keywords: adults, immune-chromatographic assay, prevalence, potential risk factors, recombinant antigen K39, Sana’a city, visceral leishmaniasis, Yemen.


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Peer Review History:


Received: 9 March 2022; Revised: 14 April; Accepted: 29 April, Available online: 15 May 2022


Academic Editor: Dr. Sally A. El-Zahabyorcid22.jpg, Pharos University in Alexandria, Egypt, sally.elzahaby@yahoo.com


UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency. 


Received file: 6.gif                               Reviewer's Comments:download_logo_r_29189.gif


Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 6.0/10


Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.0/10


Reviewers:


orcid22.jpgDr. Tamer Elhabibi, Suez Canal University, Egypt, tamer_hassan@pharm.suez.edu.eg


orcid22.jpgDr. Nicola Micale, University of Messina, Italy,  nmicale@unime.it


orcid22.jpgDr. Rawaa Souhil Al-Kayali, Aleppo University, Syriarawah67@hotmail.com


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Keywords: adults, immune-chromatographic assay, prevalence, potential risk factors, recombinant antigen K39, Sana’a city, visceral leishmaniasis, Yemen

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Abu-Hurub, A. S., A. A. Okbah, H. M. A. Al-Dweelah, K. A. Al-Moyed, A. I. M. Al-Kholani, M. M. A. Al-Najhi, and H. A. Al-Shamahy. “PREVALENCE OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS AMONG ADULTS IN SANA’A CITY-YEMEN”. Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 7, no. 2, May 2022, doi:https://doi.org/10.22270/ujpr.v7i2.745.
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