NEONATAL BACTERIAL CONJUNCTIVITIS IN TERTIARY HOSPITALS IN SANA'A CITY, YEMEN
Background: Ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) is the most widespread eye infection occurring in the first 28 days of life. Although most of these cases are benign, some may progress to systemic complications or blindness if left untreated.
Objectives: The current study was conducted with the aim of revealing the bacteriological causes of conjunctivitis in neonates and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of these bacteria.
Subjects and methods: The study included all neonates at the age of 1 to 28 days presenting at the neonatal nurseries with Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and level II care beds in three hospitals; Authority of Al-Thawra General Hospital, Al-Kuwait University Hospital and Al-Sabeen Maternity and Child Hospital in Sana’a city, Yemen. A full history was taken from each nurse and mothers of the neonates included in the study in which the findings were recorded in a predesigned questionnaire including socio demographic, maternal clinical information and therapeutic interventions. To isolate the causative agent, the conjunctival swabs were inoculated on proper media and bacteria were identified by standard microbiological methods and antibiotic resistance was done for the isolates.
Results: 203 swabs were collected from newborns with eye discharge over a nine-month period. Positive growth rate was 51.7%, males were more affected (57.1%), 80% of affected neonates had low birth weight, 71.4% of preterm infants were most affected (p <0.01). There was a significant relationship between invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation with neonatal conjunctivitis (p<0.05). Gentamicin showed good in vitro sensitivity to all bacteria isolated, Staphylococcus aureus (83%), Escherichia coli 84.6%, with P. aeruginosa it was 60%.
Conclusion: The vast majority of cases of neonatal conjunctivitis were mild with a high level of occurrence, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the major bacterial agents, neonatal conjunctivitis most likely to be a hospital-acquired infection. There was a significant association between phototherapy, non-invasive ventilation and incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis . Gentamicin had high activity against the bacteria isolated in this study.
Peer Review History:
Received: 9 November 2021; Revised: 11 December; Accepted: 27 December, Available online: 15 January 2022
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Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 6.0/10
Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.0/10