PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HEPATITIS B VIRUS, AND HEPATITIS C VIRUS, AMONG PATIENTS WITH HEPATIC JAUNDICE IN SANA’A CITY, YEMEN: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

  • Huda Zaid Al-Shami Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen.
  • Zaid Ali Mohammed Al-Mutawakal Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen.
  • Abdulwahab Ismail Mohamed Al-Kholani Department of conservative dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen.
  • Muhamed Ahmed Al-Haimi Departement of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen.
  • Ahmed Mohammed Al-Haddad Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hadhramout University, Al-Mukalla, Yemen.
  • Redhwan A. Ahmed Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University. Laboratory Department, University of Science and Technology Hospital, Sana'a, Yemen.
  • Ali Abdullah Al-Somainy Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University. The National Center for Public Health Laboratories in Sana'a, The Ministry of Health and Population, Sana’a, Yemen.
  • Hassan Abdulwahab Al-Shamahy Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University. Medical Microbiology department, Faculty of Medicine, Genius University for Sciences & Technology, Dhamar city, Republic of Yemen.

Abstract

Background: Hepatic jaundice results from abnormal metabolism of bilirubin in the liver. The main hepatic jaundice causes are severe damage to hepatocytes due to autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, drugs/ medication induced, or, less commonly, hereditary genetic diseases.


Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B Virus (HBV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), in patients with hepatic jaundice as causes of acute viral hepatitis (AVH) in Sana'a city, Yemen.


Subjects and Methods: Data of patients with hepatic jaundice tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, total anti-HCV antibody, and anti-HAV immunoglobulin M (IgM) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were collected from Class I Viral Diagnostic Laboratories in Sana'a for 3 years. Then the statistical analysis of the data was used where the descriptive analysis was calculated: frequency and percentage, as well as the association of infection with sex and age group by means of detection odds ratio, 95% CI and X2 more than 3.9 and P<0.05 were considered statistically significant.


Results: The study included 644 males (43.8%) and 826 females (56.2%), while most patients were less than 21 years old. The rate of Hepatitis viruses positive was 27.6% positive. Hepatitis A virus infection was the most common virus diagnosed accounting for 259 cases (17.6% of the total), while HBV was less common with 104 (7.1%) and HCV only 42 cases (2.9%). The highest incidence of hepatitis B was in 11-20 years patients (18.2%), with an associated OR 9.3 (p < 0.0001). The highest incidence of hepatitis C was in 31-40 years patients (7.3%), with an associated OR 3.3 (p<0.0001).


Conclusion:  Alarmingly changing the epidemiology and dynamics of hepatitis A-C viruses in Yemen, a detailed study is required to understand the definite disease problem caused by these viruses. It is noticeable in this study the high prevalence of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus in the Yemeni population with hepatic jaundice. Also, to our knowledge, this study is the first to report epidemiological transformation of hepatitis A virus in Sana'a, Yemen.


                    r38.gif


Peer Review History:


Received: 13 November 2021; Revised: 11 December; Accepted: 30 December, Available online: 15 January 2022


Academic Editor: Dr. Nuray Arıorcid22.jpg, Ankara University, Turkiye, ari@ankara.edu.tr


UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency. 


Received file:blue_23983.gif                Reviewer's Comments:download_logo_r_29189.gif


Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 5.5/10


Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.0/10


Reviewers:


orcid22.jpgDr. Gulam Mohammed Husain,, National Research Institute of Unani Medicine for Skin Disorders, Hyderabad, India, gmhusain@gmail.com


orcid22.jpgDr. Salfarina Ramli, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. salfarina2892@uitm.edu.my  


Similar Articles:


PREVALENCE OF DIFFERENT HEPATITIS B VIRUS GENOTYPES AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED AMONG SELECTED YEMENI PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS B INFECTION


SERO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF HEPATITIS B, C, HIV AND TREPONEMA PALLIDUM AMONG BLOOD DONORS IN HODEIDA CITY- YEMEN


EXPLOSION OF HEPATITIS B AND C VIRUSES AMONG HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS AS A RESULT OF HEMODIALYSIS CRISIS IN YEMEN

Keywords: Hepatic jaundice, Hepatitis A virus, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, prevalence, Sana’a, viral hepatitis, Yemen

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Comments

Statistics
83 Views | 68 Downloads
Dimension Citations
How to Cite
Al-Shami, H. Z., Z. A. M. Al-Mutawakal, A. I. M. Al-Kholani, M. A. Al-Haimi, A. M. Al-Haddad, R. A. Ahmed, A. A. Al-Somainy, and H. A. Al-Shamahy. “PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HEPATITIS B VIRUS, AND HEPATITIS C VIRUS, AMONG PATIENTS WITH HEPATIC JAUNDICE IN SANA’A CITY, YEMEN: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY”. Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 6, no. 6, Jan. 2022, doi:https://doi.org/10.22270/ujpr.v6i6.693.
Section
Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)