PATTERNS OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AMONG MAJOR BACTERIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SAMPLES IN TWO TERTIARY’S HOSPITALS, IN SANA'A, YEMEN

  • Huda Zaid Al-Shami Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen.
  • Muhamed Ahmed Al-Haimi Depertement of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen.
  • Omar Ahmed Esma’il Al-dossary Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen.
  • Abeer Abdulmahmood Mohamed Nasher Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen.
  • Mohammed Mohammed Ali Al-Najhi Orthodontics, Pedodontics and Prevention Department Faculty of Dentistry, Genius University for Sciences & Technology, Dhamar city, Republic of Yemen.
  • Hassan Abdulwahab Al-Shamahy Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen. Medical Microbiology department, Faculty of Medicine, Genius University for Sciences & Technology, Dhamar city.
  • Azhar Azher Mohammed Al-Ankoshy Jabir Ibn Hayyan Medical University, Faculty of medicine, Department of Physiology, An-Najaf, Iraq.

Abstract

Background and objectives: At the present time, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public health hazard, with antimicrobial resistance bacteria increasing exponentially. This study estimates the epidemiological profiles and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB)  isolated from clinical samples among patients admitted to two University hospitals in Sana'a city for one year (2019).


Methods: This was a retrospective study of clinical samples of patients collected from January 1, 2019 to December 30, 2019. All samples were appraised to determine presence of infectious agents using standard methods for isolation and identification of bacteria and yeasts from clinical samples of patients admitted to Al-Gumhouri University Hospital and Al-Kuwait University Hospital in Sana'a city. Antibiotic resistance was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods.


Results:  2,931 different pathogenic bacteria were detected from 24,690 different clinical specimens. The samples had an overall detection rate of 11.9% (2931/24,690). Among the bacterial pathogens isolated from clinical samples, 52.4% (n=1536) had GPB and 41.2% (n=1207) had GNB. The predominant GNB isolates were E.coli (22.04%), Klebsiella spp (6.03%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.1%), Acinetobacter baumannii (1.46%), Enterobacter spp. (1.09%), Citrobacter spp. (1.16%), respectively. Among the GPB, S.aureus was the most common (26.3%), Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (8.1%), Non-hemolytic Streptococcus (9.1%), Other alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus (3.9%), Streptococcus pyogenes (1.9%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (0.5% ). A high rate of antibiotic resistance was recorded for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (85.5%), ceftazidime (81.07%), ampicillin (70.4%), cefuroxime (66.4%).


Conclusions:  The current study results revealed that the rate of resistance between GNB and GPB is associated with the incidence of different infections in patients attending two major tertiary hospitals in Sana'a city is very high. These results indicate ongoing screening and follow-up programs to detect antibiotic resistance, and also suggest the development of antimicrobial stewardship programs in Sana'a, Yemen.


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Peer Review History:


Received: 9 September 2021; Revised: 11 October; Accepted: 23 October, Available online: 15 November 2021


Academic Editor:  Dr. A.A. Mgbahurikeorcid22.jpg, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, amaka_mgbahurike@yahoo.com


UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency. 


Received file:blue_23983.gif                Reviewer's Comments:download_logo_r_29189.gif


Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 6.0/10


Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.5/10


Reviewers:


orcid22.jpgRima Benatoui, Laboratory of Applied Neuroendocrinology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Badji Mokhtar University Annaba, BP12 E L Hadjar–Algeria, benattouiryma@gmail.com


orcid22.jpgDr. Wadhah Hassan Ali Edrees, Hajja University, Yemen, edress2020@gmail.com


orcid22.jpgRola Jadallah, Arab American University, Palestine, rola@aauj.edu


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Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, bacterial, infection, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Yemen

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Al-Shami, H. Z., M. A. Al-Haimi, O. A. E. Al-dossary, A. A. M. Nasher, M. M. A. Al-Najhi, H. A. Al-Shamahy, and A. A. M. Al-Ankoshy. “PATTERNS OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AMONG MAJOR BACTERIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SAMPLES IN TWO TERTIARY’S HOSPITALS, IN SANA’A, YEMEN”. Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 6, no. 5, Nov. 2021, doi:https://doi.org/10.22270/ujpr.v6i5.674.
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