TOXOPLASMOSIS IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN YEMEN: THE IMMUNE STATUS AND POTENTIAL RISK FACTORS

  • Nashwa Abdullah Naji Saeed Alqaisi Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University.
  • Abdulsalam M. AL-Mekhlafi Department of Medical parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen.
  • Hassan A. Al-Shamahy Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University.
  • Abdullah AD Al-Rukeimi Departement of Obstetrics and gynecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen.
  • Kaima A. Foras Departement of Obstetrics and gynecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen.
  • Ali Abdulkarim Sheiban Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen.

Abstract

Background and aims: Toxoplasmosis is caused as a result of intracellular protozoan organism, Toxoplasma gondii, and is a widespread disease. Toxoplasmosis can progress to a serious systemic disease (congenital form); once a mother becomes infected for the first time for the period of pregnancy, a transient haematopoietic parasite can appear with focal lesions produced within the placenta, thus infecting the fetus. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the immune status of the pregnant woman towards toxoplasmosis, determining the prevalence of T. gondii in Amran city -Yemen, and identifying the potential risk factors that affect the pregnant woman towards toxoplasmosis.


Material and methods: This study included 280 pregnant women who were admitted to maternity clinics at Amran General Hospital and Family Health Center in Amran City -Yemen during the period from December 2016 to June 2017. The questionnaire was used to obtain relevant demographic data and potential risk factors. Then, blood samples were collected from pregnant women and tested for identification of IgM and IgG antibodies against T. gondii using the ELISA technique.


Results: The total positive rate for IgM antibodies was 3.6%, while for IgG was 27.9%. A high IgM rate equal to 5.3% was observed in the 31-35 age group, and a higher IgG rate (36.8%) was observed in the same age group. There were 69.3% of pregnant women susceptible to infection with toxoplasmosis, 2.9% recently infected, 27.1% protected, and 0.7% had secondary infection.  The high rate of IgM positivity was observed in the second trimester of pregnancy (4.7%), while the lowest rate was in the third trimester of pregnancy (2%). A slight increase in the rate of IgG positivity was observed in the third trimester of pregnancy (32%). There was a significant association between contact with animals such as cats and infection with toxoplasmosis, where OR =5.4, CI =1.01-30.13, χ2 =4.59, p =0.04. While there was no significant association with the other studied factors.


Conclusion:   Yemen has less seropositivity than other Arab and African countries as a result of variation in risk factors. Data on T. gondii infection during pregnancy is scarce in numerous countries, in particular where there is a lack of political constancy such as Yemen. The risk factors identified included proximity to the cats and domistic animals, and increased maternal age. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Yemen may be a really underestimated health problem. More research is needed.


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Peer Review History:


Received 19 March 2021; Revised 12 April; Accepted 28 April, Available online 15 May 2021


Academic Editor: Dr. DANIYAN Oluwatoyin Michaelorcid22.jpg, Obafemi Awolowo University, ILE-IFE, Nigeria, toyinpharm@gmail.com


UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency. 


Received file:blue_23983.gif                Reviewer's Comments:download_logo_r_29189.gif


Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 6.5/10


Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.5/10


Reviewer(s) detail:


Rola Jadallahorcid22.jpg, Arab American University, Palestine, rola@aauj.edu


Prof. Dr. Gorkem Dulgerorcid22.jpg, Duzce University, Turkey, gorkemdulger@yandex.com


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Keywords: Immunological Status, pregnant women, risk factors, Toxoplasmosis, Yemen

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How to Cite
Alqaisi, N. A. N. S., A. M. AL-Mekhlafi, H. A. Al-Shamahy, A. A. Al-Rukeimi, K. A. Foras, and A. A. Sheiban. “TOXOPLASMOSIS IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN YEMEN: THE IMMUNE STATUS AND POTENTIAL RISK FACTORS”. Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 6, no. 2, May 2021, doi:https://doi.org/10.22270/ujpr.v6i2.570.
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Research Articles