AWARENESS AMONGST YOUTH ABOUT USE AND ABUSE OF STEROIDS IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN
Aim of present study was to analyze awareness regarding the use of steroids in the youth studying health sciences. A descriptive, observational study was conducted from September to December 2017. Youth studying health sciences aged 21–25 years in Karachi were recruited for the study, among which (n=179) 50.99% were pharmacy students and (n=172) 49% were studying allied health sciences. Descriptive statistics (SPSS version 16.0) was used to analyze the results. Out of 400 questionnaires, the response rate was 87.75%. Majority students were knowledgeable about steroids and (72.64%) agreed that steroids should be sold as prescription only medicine in Pakistan (p= 0.00).Most of them n=147 (41.88%) had no idea about various modes of steroid abuse (p=0.00).Many participants (n= 109;31.05%) thought that steroids were found in toothpaste and dentifrices, cosmetics and ophthalmic preparations; n= 135 (38.46%) had no idea whether or not the steroids had interactions with opiates and cocaine, alcohol and benzodiazepines. The perception was seen in n= 118 (33.61%) persons that nutritional alternative/supplements could be used to reduce steroid abuse; n= 79 (22.50%) used steroids for grooming upon prescription by medical practitioner. Allergic reactions were thought as the mild side effects of steroid use by n= 100 (28.24%) while n= 166 (47.29%) considered kidney and liver diseases as severe side effects of steroid use (p=0.00). It was noted that comprehensive information about the steroids was required by youth since they were studying health sciences. Some modifications in the curriculum have to be made for providing more information about substances like steroids to the health sciences students as steroids have a great impact not only physically but also psychologically.
Peer Review History:
UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.
Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 5.5/10
Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.5/10
Name: Antonio José de Jesus Evangelista
Affiliation: Federal University of Ceará, UFC, Brazil
Name: Dr. Ali Abdullah Al-yahawi
Affiliation: Al-Razi university, Department of Pharmacy, Yemen
Comments of reviewer(s):